Using the GID product should cite this website ( and the following paper:

Tong, D., Q. Zhang, Y. Zheng, K. Caldeira, C. Shearer, C. Hong, Y. Qin and S. J. Davis (2019), Committed emissions from existing energy infrastructure jeopardize 1.5 ℃ climate target, Nature, 572, 373-377.

Using sectoral dataset should further cite the corresponding papers:


Qin, X., D. Tong, F. Liu, R. Wu, B. Zheng, Y. Zheng, J. Liu, R. Xu, C. Chen, L. Yan and Q. Zhang (2022), Global and regional drivers of power plant CO2 emissions over the last three decades revealed from unit‐based database, Earth’s Future., 10, 1–18.

Tong, D., Q. Zhang, S. J. Davis, F. Liu, B. Zheng, G. Geng, T. Xue, M. Li, C. Hong, Z. Lu, D. G. Streets, D. Guan and K. He (2018), Targeted emission reductions from global super-polluting power plant units, Nat. Sustain., 1, 59-68.

Iron and steel

Xu, R., D. Tong, S.J. Davis, X. Qin, J. Cheng, Q. Shi, Y. Liu, C. Chen, L. Yan, X. Yan, H. Wang, D. Zheng, K. He and Q. Zhang (2023), Plant-by-plant decarbonization strategies for the global steel industry, Nat. Clim. Change, 13, 1067–1074.

Wang, X., Y. Lei, L. Yan, T. Liu, Q. Zhang and K. He (2019), A unit-based emission inventory of SO2, NOx and PM for the Chinese iron and steel industry from 2010 to 2015, Sci. Total Environ., 676, 18-30.


Chen, C., R. Xu, D. Tong, X. Qin, J. Cheng, J. Liu, B. Zheng, L. Yan, and Q. Zhang (2022). A striking growth of CO2 emissions from the global cement industry driven by new facilities in emerging countries. Environ. Res. Lett., 17(4), p.044007.

Liu, J., D. Tong, Y. Zheng, J. Cheng, X. Qin, Q. Shi, L. Yan, Y. Lei and Q. Zhang (2021), Carbon and air pollutant emissions from China’s cement industry 1990–2015: trends, evolution of technologies and drivers, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1627–1647.